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Of litchi garden autumn, winter management
From;    Author:Stand originally
Litchi establishs a foundation of breed different, the requirement is in autumn is timely the education of branch of mother of result of the Qiu Sao that finish, winter enters bud differentiation period, those who be next year blossom, the result lays next good foundations. The research with litchi bud academic in recent years become divided and the research that hurried dominating an end spends a technology have greater progress, on the base that seizes very groovy managing, carry out hurried dominating an end to spend new technology, it is to ensure litchi becomes flower and the important segment that achieve high yield normally. One, one of crucial step that the Mu Zhi of Qiu Sao result with the timely and hale education of branch of mother of Qiu Sao result with timely and hale education is litchi high yield. Litchi collects fruit hind to basically work is to restore a tree situation and make Qiu Sao timely take out. Grown tree asks to take out: 2 one Qiu Sao, childhood and requirement of tree of black prime of life take out 3 one 2 autumn tips, make as a result Mu Zhi has enough nutrition to accumulate already so, undertake bud splits up, can defer appropriately again not of Ci Qiusao old ripe period, reduce wintry end smoke unripe. Foster hale Qiu Sao to must have grabbed the following job: (1) collect fruit around to apply fertilizer to regain tree power again; (2) the clip after collecting; (3) foster 3 one 1 autumn tips according to the circumstance that establish system, education the first, 2 tips should be given priority to with nitrogenous fertilizer commonly, foster a tip the 3rd times, want the supply of portion of special attention water and proper control nitrogenous fertilizer; (4) differ according to breed master not Ci Qiusao is old ripe period. 2, not Ci Qiusao is optimal smoke unripe period with the bud of the affirmatory litchi of wintry tip differentiation period depends on breed and different, early breed is red in March, early in ripe breed water east, imperial concubine laugh began bud become divided October, and flavour of Ci of polished glutinous rice of late ripe breed, laurel, Huai Zhi just undertook November bud splits up. From this we can split up from the bud of different breed period will decide not of second tip optimal smoke unripe period. According to investigation, of early breed not second tip asks to be in in August the last ten-day of a month one the first ten days of a month was taken out in September, old October ripe; Ripe breed asks in September the last ten-day of a month is taken out in, the first ten days of a month is old in November ripe; Late ripe breed asks to be by September one the first ten days of a month was taken out in October, the last ten-day of a month is old in November ripe. Different breed is in not second tip is optimal smoke unripe period smoke unripe branch tip to call wintry end later (the branch tip that forms bud not easily namely) . Split up in bud period, be like fruit-bearing shoot tip cannot sufficient old ripe, nutrition is accumulated insufficient, the requirement of become divided of impossible contented bud to nutrition, although can become a flower, quality is poor also, smoke because of what this must dominate wintry end strictly on production unripe. 3, the condition that place of bud become divided requires 1. Outside ambient condition: Outside ambient condition includes temperature, humidity, sunshine to wait. The low temperature that become divided of litchi bud configuration asks for some time, early variety is not high to microtherm requirement, breed of average age precocity is nonexistent the phenomenon that be not worth because of microtherm and cannot form bud, and differentiation period adjusts the bud pattern such as flavour of Ci of polished glutinous rice of medium, late ripe breed, laurel, Huai Zhi, Xue Huaizi microtherm requirement is stricter, in bud configuration average temperature is in day of differentiation period requirement bud become divided just is helpful for under 10 ℃ , be like day all lukewarm the flower is become hard in 18 ℃ above. According to report, medium, late ripe breed is inside the microtherm limits of 0 ~ 10C, keep period of time, be helpful for the formation of bud. Dry ambient conditions (include edaphic humidity and air humidity) , the nutrition that can defer tree body grows, be helpful for bud physiology become divided. Much average high temperature, wetter climate promotes nutrition to grow, make wintry tip happens and form bud not easily. The accident of sunshine time is not big to influence of bud become divided, but winter has sunny weather, enough sunshine, difference in temperature of day and night is big, be helpful for carbohydrate of plant branch, leaf accumulate, to bud physiology differentiation has positive effect. 2. Immanent condition: Bud become divided is the turning point that grows to reproduction from nutrition. The process is fashioned in bud in, the sort that cultivates the nutrient condition inside body and hormone, scale produced apparent change. Inside blade inside source hormone falls off acerbity (ABA) with the cell excited element (CTK) content increases, and promote growth gibberellin (GAs) and grow element (IAA) decrease significantly. Through blade the analysis can see: Be in bud the lamina of differentiation period plant, the content of its carbohydrate has apparent addition, this is the nutrient base that place of bud become divided needs, have only apparently hale, old ripe branch just may have enough nutrient to accumulate will undertake bud splits up. 4, the agricultural measure that as beautiful as hurried dominating an end technology concerns 1. Fertilization technology: Litchi is to need fertilizer to measure larger tree to plant, can say all the year round the fertilizer that grows to need different sort with development, of fertilization reasonable, the education that affects branch of hale result mother directly, bud splits up and blossom and bear fruit. The following problems should note on fertilization: Organic fertilizer and fertilizer photograph combine ① , lasting effect fertilizer and photograph of fertilizer of quick result sex are united in wedlock. ② litchi is taller to requirement of phosphor, potash fertilizer, should emphasize adding Shi Lin, potash fertilizer. The period that ③ fertilizes, ambitious attune is collected before fruit or collect fruit hind to apply fertilizer of quick result sex to be cultivated with restoring as soon as possible situation, every take in the future the tip applies 2 one 1 fertilizer, make Qiu Sao is smoked be born to be mixed in time hale, hurried tip fertilizer should occupy annual dose 70 % above. General blueness, prime of life is cultivated, collect fruit hind 7, 15 days of clip, the requirement takes out 2 ~ 3 times tip, and grown knot fruiter asks to take out 1 ~ 2 times commonly tip, after second tip is taken out, did not want to control nitrogenous fertilizer use strictly, lest take unripe winter tip. Qiu Sao is old ripe hind winter is OK deep ploughing applies base fertilizer, make next year blossom and bear fruit with. In bud differentiation period can undertake foliage dressing for many times, can satisfy the tree body need to nutrition already, what can prevent nutrition to grow with reproduction again is maladjusted. 2. Clip technology: Clip can close to tip. Accordingly, will decide the period of clip according to putting the number of the tip, general requirement picks the crop after fruit, but should assure to be being collected fertilizer of enough quick result sex is applied before fruit. Tree sign is good, clip is OK heavier, tree power can be cut gently only infirmly. Branch of annihilate deadwood, ill bug, across branch, jackknife branch, weak branch should notice when clip, branch of short cut excessive growth, take orchard processing, in order to reduce bug source, pathogeny. During dominating an end avoid by all means has crop, lest stimulate the happening of wintry tip. If collect fruit hind to do not have clip, can have crop appropriately when bud of the bud at the beginning of March, give priority to with branch of annihilate deadwood, ill bug. 3. Irrigate: Water portion is litchi grows in development process indispensable, in attack when putting Qiu Sao, fertilization often wants union to irrigate, in order to promote the absorption of root system, but the season in tip accusing a winter, want to control the supply of water portion not only, and achieve the goal that makes water even through dig, because control the supply of water portion, can make branch tip grows slow or stop, split up at bud with benefit. Be in 1 one Feburary, bud configuration splits up period, if encounter drought, bud of hurried of water wanting fill is smoked unripe. 4. Plant diseases and insect pests prevents and cure: The pest to kill Qiu Sao is a lot of more phyletic, have moth of mite of borer of litchi the base of a fruit, taper moth, rash, tussock moth, feet, part of a historical period thin midge, hair initial stage is smoked to want to notice to do good prophylaxis and treatment to work in Qiu Sao, in order to protect Qiu Saojian strong grow. 5, hurried dominating an end spends technical measure 1. Measure of tip accusing a winter (1) the Qiu Sao with timely and hale education: According to situation of breed, tree, and expect the number that puts an end, collecting fruit around to apply fertilizer of person hurried tip in time, make sure tip period has enough fertilizer to supply. Collect fruit hind timely and measurable clip, make Qiu Sao timely smoke unripe, the prophylaxis and treatment that has made pest of Qiu Sao period works. (2) be completely cured: Be in not second tip is sufficient old ripe hind, union applies base fertilizer, shallow channel is dug to press outside waterline of drop of crown of a tree green or use a person organic fertilizer, be like fruiter situation relatively flourishing, estimation may take out wintry tip, can be in whole cultivate dish of dig to break fine root v hoe. (3) annulus cuts: Multi-purpose cultivate at black prime of life, undertook December in 11 ~ commonly, best in the diameter the annulus on the big branch of 6 one 10 centimeter is cut, want to notice to master the deepness that annulus cuts at the same time, allow with just achieving xylem to be, additional, annulus cuts cutting tool to should not be too sharp, (4) gyroidal annulus pares: To Zhuangwang childhood result is cultivated, can undertake helix annulus pares. In not second tip is old ripe when can use pare the mouth is wide 0. 2 one 0. 3 centimeters annulus pares knife annulus pares 1 1.5 one, deepness allows with just achieving xylem to be, annulus pares place from from the ground 25 centimeters of above 10 centimeters of one 8 thick main force, bough or side branch. Production carries out a proof, tip accusing a winter had better be to use annulus to cut measure, the orchard with fat water particularly good condition just uses annulus to pare. (5) use chemistry drug undertakes dominating an end: "Litchi is special hurried spends an agent " and " interest dominating an end is beautiful " wait for litchi to grow conditioning agent, through old much district bedding face accumulating is used, of tip of winter of can effective control smoke unripe, improve the quality that litchi spends, shorten Hua Sui, increase the proportion of female flower, raise bema fruit rate and yield. (6) the tip that kill a winter: Use artificial to erase in time when wintry tip bud, or use " tip namely withered " the tip that kill a winter, if union is used " litchi is special hurried spends an agent " , " interest dominating an end is beautiful " it is better to wait for drug to dominate end result. 2. Hurried spends measure (1) early breed is in 10 one in November, in late ripe breed is in 11 one in December gush 2 3 one " compound model nucleotide is acerbity " , accelerate not Ci Qiusao turns green, old ripe, raise blade photosynthesis, increase organic nutrition accumulate. (2) early breed is in in October the middle ten days of a month one the last ten-day of a month, medium in November late ripe breed is in December the last ten-day of a month gush of the one the middle ten days of a month on Feburary 2 3 one " compound model segmentation element " , stimulative bud stirs, differentiation. (3) early breed is in in October the middle ten days of a month one the last ten-day of a month, medium in November late ripe breed is in December the last ten-day of a month one in Feburary water of fill of the first ten days of a month 2 3 one, every 10 days one, stimulative bud stirs, differentiation. (4) inflorescence is smoked unripe period when young Xie Wei spreads out, gush " flocculus is taken off " , can fall off young leaf effectively, promote a flower. (5) inflorescence is smoked give birth to period gush 1 2 one " compound model segmentation element " , can promote inflorescence growth effectively, promote a flower, shorten Hua Sui. 6, purpose of clear garden of winter of winter clear garden is source of the pathogeny that eliminates live through the winter, bug, reduce the cardinal number of ill bug of beginning of spring, achieve the goal that precaution gives priority to, especially the orchard with serious mildew of frost epidemic disease, winter must do work of very clear garden. Be in not Ci Qiusao is old ripe hind, union accuses a tip to have edaphic government, the fireweed in cleared soil, deadwood, fallen leaves, after complete garden turns over 20 centimeter greatly, scatter in the orchard on lime. The deadwood that crown of a tree is in charge of behoove to get on crown of a tree before person winter, pest is the dried fruit that kill for mildew of epidemic disease of the branches and leaves that kill, frost burn-up of full wipe out, next gush the lime sulfur of 1 Baume degrees or copper of chloridize of 30 % oxygen 600 times fluid, quantity of the water when gush medicine wants gush sufficient, truncal also want gush drug with the ground (the last ten-day of a month came in December January) . Note: This period lecture basis lab of litchi of institute of fruiter of courtyard of Guangdong farming division " litchi accuses wintry tip to close to beautiful technology grooms a teaching materials " arrange  

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