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The physiology after domestic and international litchi is collected stores
From;    Author:Stand originally
The physiology after the summary summed up domestic explicit litchi to collect, pathology and store up last the newest progress of research, right litchi will last henceforth the development direction to table a proposal of research. Pathology of the physiology after keyword litchi is collected lasts   litchi (n of n of o of S of s of i of s of n of e of n of i of h of c of i of h of c of L i t ) belong to impunity child kind, for semi-tropical evergreen, originate in our country south formerly, regard a kind of high price as the semi-tropical fruit of the value, cultivate semi-tropical area of Yu Yazhou and and other places of Hawaiian, south Africa, Australia extensively already now. Our country is the biggest litchi production country, cultivate an area to be about 3. 105 h of 6 × m 2, total output is amounted to 3. 105 t of 96 × [1 ] . Litchi is to be able to bear or endure least of all one of store fruit, the ancients cloud: "Leave this branch one day actually and color changes, 2 days and sweet change, 3 days and flavour changes, 4, 5 days of lubricious fragrance go " . What simple change tastes after visible litchi is collected is fast. The caustic break an appointment that litchi deteriorates every year because of decay and causes occupies the 20 % above of total output, for this, domestic and international rule of change of character of the physiology after a lot of scientific research units and institution of higher learing are collected to litchi in succession and store up last the technology undertakes study, gained a few headway, in litchi quick-freeze cold storage lasts respect, already can assure fruit store half an year or longer [2 ~ 6] . Be in those who give the character on the goods shelves after refrigeratory to maintain however reach normal temperature to last respect, fail to gain revolutionary headway. The process in the physiology after the article is collected to domestic and international litchi especially, disease and store up last the newest progress of research makes following overview, right will study directional to table a proposal henceforth. The structural characteristic of 1 litchi fructification and litchi of process of the physiology after collecting, pathology are solid after complete maturity, peel (housing) attenuate harden, grow a lot of scale spot record protuberant, peel is shown bright red or the red that attack a marvellous, some still takes bit of green, pulp (aril) ivory, translucent, the seed of puce is wrapped inside. Litchi skin texture is complex, it is by three-layer the organization forms: Most outside one organizes a cell to contain the bar condition of cyanine element, organize hole slue; Middle-level is cellular clearance huge spongy tissue, take the skin of fruit major; And most the cell forms the Bao Bi with secretter organization of layer of lining criterion amount to. There is stone cell between exocarp and mesocarp, contain Brown material [7] . Litchi Pi Baoshui force is extremely weak, moisture evaporates easily to cause fructification to do withered atrophy and brown to change thereby. Litchi changes to do not have breath to jump period fructification [8 ~ 11] , extract the hydrolysis effect that cache does not produce after closing, respiration is given priority to with using solubility saccharide gradually [12] . Litchi fact contains sugar 15 % , protein 1 . 15 % , ash content 0. 5 % [13] , did not report contain starch and adipose. Collect the litchi fructification initial stage after closing respiration is stronger, reduce gradually subsequently, can rise again finally, in the meantime, peel is corresponding also by red change brown, dehydrate gradually weightlessness and wither, sponge organizes systole, cellular clearance is reduced, the cell squashs each other, hole block, cause fructification to breathe without oxygen thereby acidify, cankered finally. The reason with litchi degenerative decay is very much, basically cause by cankered bacteria, include black aspergillus, yellow aspergillus, two model aspergillus of mew of the housing aspergillus, 4 backbone aspergillus, compose that do not have a coronal, column Bao is belonged to, 2 Bao belong to cocoa ball, green mildew is belonged to, dish long Bao shape is pricked dish of Bao and many dishes wool Bao. In addition, bao of Hawaiian long squirm (e of s of n of e of i of i of a of w of a of h of m of u of i of r of o of p of s of o of h of t of n of i of m of H e l ) also be a kind of fungus that causes litchi decay [15] , breed of our country certain litchi is particularly sensitive to this bacterium. The litchi decay that afore-mentioned cankered bacterias cause has 9 sort model, include date of aspergillus decay 1 to belong to ball of cankered, cocoa to Bao of 5 date, column 2 Bao decay, thorn dish Bao is belonged to decay and many dishes wool Bao belongs to decay to wait. They are in gains development process or collect receive around conceal to be in peel surface, or invade from wormhole, cut, to kill fruit. In addition, a few microzyme, bacterium also can breed in peel surface and inside thorough fruit, make pulp acidify and cankered. 2 litchi lasts research makes progress 2. The research that 1 prevents litchi fructification brown to change is in when full understanding reachs solid to litchi cankered mechanism unfinished to restrain medicaments effectively to had be notted develop, basically a super-cooling aspic or cold storage finish litchi lasts. As a result of refrigerant or the litchi of the delivery of cargo from storage after cold storage is answered in goods go up to change quickly brown, accordingly, long-term research work is centered at how preventing litchi skin to change brown, in order to ensure its are beautiful, assure commodity value thereby. Our country had litchi early to last in Ming Dynasty method, its practice is, choose Ju Zhu, leave unoccupied place, put litchi again sealed. In using a litchi condole to enter Jing Shuizhi again later, undertake short-term store up. At the beginning of 50 time, he Licai report refrigerates litchi at 2 ~ 3 ℃ , humidity control is 90 % above, can last 30 d of 20 ~ . n of o of s of p of m of T h o (1954) [15] after putting forward litchi classics water-cooling, load ventilated polyethylene store up in bag at 4. 4 ℃ , the exterior after 9 d still very good, without sodden fruit, the fruit that head a branch is better than taking branch fruit effect. e of e of j of r of e of  of M u k [16] quality is maintained with wet moss in putting half mature litchi into polyethylene bag, lay aside at 7. Below 2 ℃ , tenability 3 weeks. Also use sealed desiccator to deposit litchi below microtherm, discovery spends initiative carbon dioxide in Gao Nong a month can maintain not to deteriorate in the environment [17] . l of l of e of b of p of C a m (1957) [18] consider to make clear, litchi deposits a condition to fall in open mode, although lay aside at 1 . 7 ~ 2. 1 ℃ , brown also changes gradually after 3 d , and if load poriferous polyethylene in bag, flavour of 3 the color after week still good, only and few decay, lin Xuezheng (1981) research also reachs similar result [19] . Undertaking physics protects color to last research while, people also considers to use chemical drug to handle, change with defer litchi fructification brown is cankered. h of t of g of S i n (1985) [20] the report is used 0. Fruit of SO4 dip of u of 5 % C, can maintain its vermeil outward appearance. n of o of s of i of n of D e n (1958) [21] the proof is used 0. 1 of 5 % ~ . Acetic acid of 5 % dehydrogenation is handled, can protect color to prevent decay effectively again already. g of C a r (1972) use adjacent phenyl benzoic acid 6 % of sodium + 9 % of ~ candle latex, it is better to discover prevent brown anticorrosive action. r of C a u (1979) [23] use fruit of dip of natrium of 2 % second chloric acid n of 3 m i , store up below 7 ℃ 42 d , its color, sweet, flavour still keeps better. He Daling (1984) [6] put forward to use Tekeduo or Benlaite 1000 × 10 - phosphor of 6 + second is aluminous 1000 × 10 - the reoccupy after 6 processing 0. Bag pouch packs the polyethylene film of 4 m m and at 3 ~ 5 ℃ stores up, take out after a few days in room temperature transfer to a lower level 30 h , still maintain litchi basically original gust. Fujian fruit company (1985) [5] studied beforehand cold, cold chain and the effect that add drug processing to last to litchi, put forward beforehand cold treatment the importance that to lasting lay aside carries, put forward to should take seriously prevent peel weather-shack reach drug anticorrosive measure closes suitably. Institute of plant of Huana of Chinese Academy of Sciences excogitates quick-freeze of a low temperature to store up law, already regarded more mature scientific research achievement as promotion application, basically export the carry that reach north in the light of litchi. Its are specific the practice is: 2 % of 10 % citric acid + 2 % of salt + fruit of dip of sulphurous acid natrium n of 2 m i , again at - the cent after 23 ℃ quick-freeze becomes 500 ~ 1000 g filmy bag is packed, at - 18 ℃ stores up, can deposit be as long as a year [24] . Zhang Jichang (1986) [25] use 0. 5 % lecithin + 2. Latex of 5 % bicarbonate natrium is handled beforehand cold the litchi that pass is solid n of 2 m i , air hind is put into 0. In the polyethylene bag with 4 m large m sealed store up to fall at room temperature, the fructification after 8 d still maintains bright red color, weightlessness rate is 2 % ~ only 3 % , cankered rate is 4. 6 % . Gao Jingcheng (1990) [26] consider to make clear: Microtherm stores up, introduce polybag packet outfit and with 2000 × 10 - 6 or the happening that tiger Pi Ling of taller pH indicator handles litchi to all can reduce peel brown to change. Luo Baokang (1991) [27] use 1000 × 10 - the reoccupy after the 6 ferry that hold cloth in the palm is handled 0. Bag of film of thick polyethylene of 4 m m is packed, store up below normal temperature or low temperature, xian Guo rate and good fruit rate get rising respectively. Still experimented to use brimstone of + of the Niao of microwave processing, sodium thiosulfate, sulfur, ferry that hold cloth in the palm to fume at the same time, + of the law that hold cloth in the palm potassium permanganate and second 2 amine 4 second acid is 2 natrium, much bacterium spirit and Tekeduo the processing that wait the effect, the processing effect with sulfur Niao is optimal as a result, it is a sodium thiosulfate next. g of W o n (1991) [28] with spirit of bacterium of 50 % benzene but wet sex powder matchs solution of pH indicator of l of 1 g / , at 48, 50 reach 52 ℃ litchi of 3 temperature processing is solid 0. 18 m of 5 ~ i n , store up in 5 ℃ 2 weeks mix 4 weeks, in ~ of 1 of 48 ℃ dip as a result n of 3 m i is mixed 2 m of ~ of 1 of 50 ℃ dip two kinds of processing of i n , fructification exterior is optimal, lowest of incidence of a disease, but the litchi of different breed, processing effect difference is bigger. Also somebody suggests to use Shi Baoke or cellular cent element and reoccupy of fruit of gibberellin solution dip refrigerate keep in storage [29] . Change to obtain first-rate to prevent brown the effect, the mechanism that brown of the peel after people is collected to litchi changes undertook study. n of y of l of J o s (1975) the PPO in thinking wounded litchi is solid and POD active are taller. Tan Xingjie (1984) [31] after enzymatic extraction of much will more phenolic oxidation, mix with acetone ammonium sulphate is rarefied, again with adjacent benzene 2 phenol, anxious Pou phenol reachs D, l-3, acid of ammonia of third of benzene of 4 2 hydroxyl makes heart thing determine enzymatic active, experiment next use sulfur Niao, sulphurous acid natrium, 2 second base potassium sulfate of natrium of acting amino formic acid, Jiao Ya, sodium chloride, cane sugar reachs 2 sulfur to benzene the depressor such as 2 phenol is opposite the influence of enzymatic active, result discovery, sulphurous acid natrium and 2 second base natrium of acting amino formic acid is opposite 2 sulfur enzymatic have intense inhibition. g of n of H u a [32] use the method that enjoys characteristic to spend grading, his discovery stores up period inside active of litchi endocarp POD drops, PPO active rises, exocarp POD active increases, PPO is in the head did not change inside 29 d , subsequently mushroom. The fall of POD active and the rise with active PPO and fructification color become synchronous to undertake. l of l of i of h of r of e of U n d (1995) [33] the active that used technology of cellular fixed position to study PPO and POD, they think, when litchi fructification brown changes, the PPO of exocarp and POD active are highest, mesocarp and endocarp are inferior, and the brown of exocarp changes even if cause as a result of enzymatic active. He thinks further, the view that the peel brown that put forward in the past changes to be caused by PPO only remains to discuss. Its wait for Zhang Zhao (1997) [34] studied litchi skin brown changes further reach biochemistry of a few physiology to react, thinking early days brown becomes main is peel dehydrates, p H rises, cause glucoside of element of design and color fade or become angry and arise, protect wet reach the red that reduces peel p to H can restore or restore peel partly. And later period brown changes criterion as a result of phenol kind of enzymatic hurried of material or the black material that are not enzymatic hurried reaction to form accumulate and arise, cannot restore artificially. Accordingly, peng Yonghong (1988) [35] think, brown of control litchi peel becomes main to have two old strategy, control namely collect dehydrate quickly and restrain the phenol with direct stimulative blank peel what receive earlier the skin of fruit kind enzymatic hurried of enzymatic hurried of material or blame oxidizes. Up to now, the drug that restrains brown effectively to change fails to discover, because this is unavailable also effective prevent brown to change last technology.

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